Author Archives: Will Davis

Nuclear Energy Blog Carnival 228

ferris wheel 202x201The 228th Carnival of Nuclear Bloggers and Authors has been posted at Yes Vermont Yankee.

Click here to access Carnival 228.

Each week, a new edition of the Carnival is hosted at one of the top English-language nuclear blogs. This rotating feature of nuclear “posts of the week” represents the dedication of those who are working toward a future of energy abundance, improved health, and broadened security through nuclear science and technology.

Past editions of the carnival have been hosted at Yes Vermont Yankee, Atomic Power Review, ANS Nuclear Cafe, NEI Nuclear Notes, Next Big Future, Atomic Insights, Hiroshima Syndrome, Things Worse Than Nuclear Power, EntrepreNuke, Thorium MSR and Deregulate the Atom.

This is a great collaborative effort that deserves your support.  If you have a pro-nuclear energy blog and would like to host an edition of the carnival, please contact Brain Wang at Next Big Future to get on the rotation

Seven Decades Past, A New Dawn

by Will Davis

Shortly before midnight on September 26, 1944, a sustained chain reaction was begun for the first time in a nuclear reactor whose purpose was not merely to prove that fission could be achieved or sustained. The brand new reactor at Hanford Engineer Works, Washington state, had only been complete for about a month; its first uranium fuel had begun loading only on September 13. Incredibly, this facility, of a nature that had never been attempted before (as man had only been aware of fission, itself, for less than a decade) was built in the incredible time span of 11 months; ground had been broken to build the reactor building in October 1943.

 

Construction begins on the Hanford 105B building -- the "B Reactor," first ever built.  The contractor was E.I. duPont de Nemours, usually just known as "DuPont."

Construction begins on the Hanford 105B building — the “B Reactor,” first ever built. The contractor was E.I. duPont de Nemours, usually just known as “DuPont.”

 

Hanford B reactor construction is well underway in this view; the plant's various designated spaces are now beginning to take shape.

Hanford B reactor construction is well underway in this view; the plant’s various designated spaces are now beginning to take shape.

 

With building construction nearly complete, workers have begun constructing the giant graphite moderator.  Thousands of bricks, eventually totalling 2200 tons, will be installed to slow neutrons to the energies required to interact with uranium fuel.

With building construction nearly complete, workers have begun constructing the giant graphite moderator. Thousands of bricks, eventually totalling 2200 tons, will be installed to slow neutrons to the energies required to interact with uranium fuel.

 

The completed 105B Building, otherwise known as B Reactor, the world's first full scale non-experimental nuclear reactor.

The completed 105B Building, otherwise known as B Reactor, the world’s first full scale non-experimental nuclear reactor.

The purpose of this reactor was fairly simple; it used a large number of uranium fuel elements that, under bombardment by neutrons from the chain reaction, produced plutonium. This plutonium could be extracted from the fuel through a chemical separation process, also performed at the vast Hanford site, and then concentrated to make atomic weapons. That was, in fact the purpose of this facility—under the purview of the Manhattan Project. The reactor developed a great deal of heat during this process (the original design as built was rated at about 240 megawatts thermal or MWt, but the reactor was substantially upgraded over the years to develop 10 times this) and it was of course natural to expect that this heat could be harnessed for power. At Hanford, the waste heat was simply dumped to the river, but the first nuclear electric generating stations in England and in France were of essentially this type—reactors whose primary purpose was to produce weapons material, but whose waste heat was harnessed to produce useful energy.

Cutaway of Hanford B Reactor building showing purpose of internal spaces and location of reactor.

Cutaway of Hanford B Reactor building, showing purpose of internal spaces and location of reactor.

Of course, the reactor did not exist in a vacuum; not only were many various support facilities required (including a steam plant and pump house to provide 35,000 gallons of cooling water per minute for the reactor), but there were other reactors of identical type under construction very soon, spread around the giant reservation along the Columbia River.

Hanford B Reactor site, showing various structures around the reactor building which is just right of center.

Hanford B Reactor site, showing various structures around the reactor building which is just right of center.

Today, B Reactor remains unique at the site. While a number of other reactors were built, operated, and eventually shut down (as was B on February 12, 1968, for the last time) over the intervening years, these have been “cocooned” or placed in storage. B Reactor on the other hand is preserved (although long since defueled and cleaned up) and is open for tours; the site has received numerous landmark awards (including from the American Nuclear Society) and is recognized today for the place it played in history in many ways.

It’s quite clear that when the sun rose on September 27, 1944, it did so on a world that had changed—a world that could never turn back. While the immediate result of this project was nuclear weapons, nuclear energy had already been considered (since 1939, in fact, by the US Navy) and both might be thought of as having been born the night before. As the world today pulls back from nuclear weaponry, it finds itself advancing in energy demand, with nuclear playing a role now even into developing countries in Africa as well as established and prosperous countries in the Middle East. The immensity of the achievements of September 1944 cannot be underestimated.

Hanford B Reactor

For More Information:

B Reactor – Dep’t. of Energy / Hanford Site

B reactor is located in the 100 Area at Hanford Site.

DOE Hanford has its own YouTube channel, with dozens of videos showing work and remediation all over the site; some feature B reactor.

Sources for this article:

The Atomic Energy Deskbook.  John F. Hogerton;  Reinhold Publishing Company, New York, 1963.

Manhattan Project – B Reactor.  Brochure, US Dep’t of Energy, 2009.

History of 100B Area.  WHC-EP-0273  Westinghouse Hanford Company for US Dept. of Energy, October 1989.

Hanford’s Historic B Reactor.  HNF-40918-VA Rev 0.  Fluor Corporation for US Dept. of Energy, March 2009.

SavannahWillinControlRoomWill Davis is the Communications Director for the N/S Savannah Association, Inc. where he also serves as historian, newsletter editor and member of the board of directors. Davis has recently been engaged by the Global America Business Institute as a consultant.  He is also a consultant to, and writer for, the American Nuclear Society; an active ANS member, he is serving on the ANS Communications Committee 2013–2016. In addition, he is a contributing author for Fuel Cycle Week, and writes his own popular blog Atomic Power Review. Davis is a former US Navy reactor operator, qualified on S8G and S5W plants.  Davis is temporarily managing all social media for the American Nuclear Society.

Presenting Atucha III

Atucha I and II at right; artist's concept of Atucha III at left.  Courtesy Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A.

Atucha I and II at right; artist’s concept of Atucha III at left. RIght-most unit is Atucha I. Courtesy Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A.

by Will Davis

Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A. announced in July that it had entered into a contract with China National Nuclear Corporation to build a Chinese–sourced version of the traditional Canadian CANDU reactor at its Atucha site. This 800-MWe plant will be the fourth at the site (already occupied by two Siemens pressurized heavy water reactor plants, and the just-begun CAREM Small Modular Reactor plant) and the nation’s fifth nuclear plant overall (adding in the CANDU plant at Embalse.) This new unit will be Argentina’s most powerful nuclear unit, topping Embalse by 200 MWe.

Just yesterday, Nucleoelectrica Argentina released a video (subtitled in English and Chinese) showing the location and construction of this new nuclear plant—a plant that not only marks a step forward for Argentina, but in the bigger picture a step forward for China’s desired goal of widely exporting nuclear power plants.

Click here to see the video on Nucleoelectrica Argentina’s YouTube channel.

Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A. image of Atucha III, a CNNC / CANDU plant, under construction.

Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A. image of Atucha III, a CNNC/CANDU plant, under construction.

Atucha III’s construction is expected to last eight years, and is a joint project between Nucleoelectrica Argentina, China National Nuclear Corporation, and Industrial and Commercial Bank of China. Nucleoelectrica Argentina will act as both owner-operator and architect-engineer, with CNNC providing “technical support, services, equipment and instrumentation” as well as materials that will ultimately be fabricated into parts in Argentina. The reference plant for the Atucha III design is the Qinshan CANDU-6.

In March of this year, Nucleoelectrica Argentina proudly announced the 40th anniversary of Atucha I, which it describes as “the first nuclear electric generating plant in Latin America.” The company expects to build yet another, still unspecified large commercial unit at the same site in the future, according to World Nuclear Association.

For More InformationClick here to see World Nuclear Association’s paper on Argentina’s nuclear energy program.

 

SavannahWillinControlRoomWill Davis is the Communications Director for the N/S Savannah Association, Inc. where he also serves as historian, newsletter editor and member of the board of directors. Davis has recently been engaged by the Global America Business Institute as a consultant.  He is also a consultant to, and writer for, the American Nuclear Society; an active ANS member, he is serving on the ANS Communications Committee 2013–2016. In addition, he is a contributing author for Fuel Cycle Week, and writes his own popular blog Atomic Power Review. Davis is a former US Navy reactor operator, qualified on S8G and S5W plants.  Davis is temporarily managing all social media for the American Nuclear Society.

Nuclear Energy Blog Carnival 227

ferris wheel 202x201The 227th Carnival of Nuclear Bloggers and Authors has been published at The Hiroshima Syndrome.

•Click here to access this week’s edition.

Each week, a new edition of the Carnival is hosted at one of the top English-language nuclear blogs. This rotating feature of nuclear “posts of the week” represents the dedication of those who are working toward a future of energy abundance, improved health, and broadened security through nuclear science and technology.

Past editions of the carnival have been hosted at Yes Vermont Yankee, Atomic Power Review, ANS Nuclear Cafe, NEI Nuclear Notes, Next Big Future, Atomic Insights, Hiroshima Syndrome, Things Worse Than Nuclear Power, EntrepreNuke, Thorium MSR and Deregulate the Atom.

This is a great collaborative effort that deserves your support.  If you have a pro-nuclear energy blog and would like to host an edition of the carnival, please contact Brain Wang at Next Big Future to get on the rotation

Another Nuclear Design Approved by the NRC

• This week the GE-Hitachi ESBWR design received its Design Certification from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

• “Design Certification” is a step in the licensing process for new nuclear power plants that allows a basic design for a nuclear plant to simply be referenced in the actual licensing process for a site, theoretically speeding the process.

ESBWR - Illustration courtesy GE-Hitachi Nuclear Energy

ESBWR – Illustration courtesy GE-Hitachi Nuclear Energy

by Will Davis

Earlier this week, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission granted design certification to General Electric’s Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor nuclear plant design, ending a years-long effort by GE to get design certification (called a DCA) and potentially paving the way to further new nuclear builds in the United States.

Dr. Solomon Levy mentions in his book “50 Years in Nuclear Power: A Retrospective” (American Nuclear Society, 2007) that the SBWR or “Simplified Boiling Water Reactor,” the predecessor design to the just-certified ESBWR, was begun as a design effort in the 1980s along with several other advanced nuclear plant designs. At that time, design was beginning to shift to passive safety features—those that take effect without operator action, which are included in the new design.

American Nuclear Society Treasurer Margaret Harding was with GE in various capacities for many years, and is familiar with BWR series development; she served as Fuel Engineering Leader for the ESBWR project. “The SBWR was a fully natural circulation reactor (meaning there are no pumps to move water through the core), was simpler, and thus less expensive than the forced recirculation designs that came before it such as the BWR/6 and ABWR,” she said. “The SBWR design eventually evolved into the ESBWR, which is even more simplified and has a number of both passive and active safety features.”

Harding said that there was a major push to reduce equipment and piping overall, leading to the decision to use natural circulation (the tendency of hot water to rise over cold water), but this led to the design of a wider, flatter reactor core that will require a slightly higher uranium enrichment than forced circulation BWR reactors and that may be slightly less economical from a fuel consumption standpoint. “But because fuel is such a small percent of your operating costs, that disadvantage isn’t huge,” she added.

Natural circulation BWR plants aren’t new; the Elk River Reactor, built by Allis-Chalmers (originally ACF) for Rural Cooperative Power Association in Minnesota in the late 1950s, was a natural circulation boiling water power reactor. Early problems with recirculation piping in various makes of boiling water reactors were another factor that led to the determined effort over the years to either move the recirculation pumps inside the reactor vessel and eliminate external piping (GE BWR/6, various ASEA–ATOM BWRs and the Hitachi–GE HP-ABWR) or else eliminate them entirely as in the ESBWR.

Of course, ESBWR is fully a GEN III+ plant (light water reactor with advanced safety features) in every sense of the term, with both fully passive and active core cooling features, a core catcher, a new containment, and more. GE-Hitachi has combined proven features from operating experience with a half century of boiling water reactors with advanced features in this design, which also interestingly is near the high end of available outputs with an electrical rating of 1600 MWe gross. The plant is available with either an 1800 RPM turbine generator for utilities that provide 60 Hz power, or a 1500 RPM unit for those that provide 50 Hz.

As of now, only two projects in the United States that have specified the ESBWR are active—namely, DTE Energy’s plan for a new Fermi-3 unit, and Dominion’s plan for a new North Anna Unit 3. DTE submitted to the NRC for a Combined License Application (COL) in September 2008, while Dominion submitted its COL in November 2007. Neither project presently has a planned date of completion for NRC review/issuance of the COL, however. In the case of North Anna-3, much of the delay centers on the fact that while Dominion initially selected the ESBWR, it switched reactor designs from 2010 to 2013 to the Mitsubishi US–APWR and then reverted to the ESBWR.

What’s next? Well, the next design to be certified in the United States might well be the South Korean APR1400. While the review process for this design was thrown back to Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power in December 2013 and remains officially at the “pre-application” status, a recent announcement by Korea Electric Power Company Engineering & Construction (which designs and builds Korean nuclear plants) reveals a sweeping inter-corporate contract among the major players in the South Korean nuclear industry to restart the push for US NRC design certification with actual application made by the end of 2014.

GE-Hitachi's ESBWR displays a number of highly advanced features, including a new containment, passive core cooling, and a core catcher.

GE-Hitachi’s ESBWR displays a number of highly advanced features, including a new containment, passive core cooling, and a core catcher.

For more information:

• GE-Hitachi has a great deal of information available to the public on its website. Click here to access their ESBWR page that includes specifications, illustrations, and very detailed downloadable documents.

See the GE-Hitachi Nuclear Energy press release.

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SavannahWillinControlRoomWill Davis is the Communications Director for the N/S Savannah Association, Inc. where he also serves as historian, newsletter editor and member of the board of directors. Davis has recently been engaged by the Global America Business Institute as a consultant.  He is also a consultant to, and writer for, the American Nuclear Society; an active ANS member, he is serving on the ANS Communications Committee 2013–2016. In addition, he is a contributing author for Fuel Cycle Week, and writes his own popular blog Atomic Power Review. Davis is a former US Navy reactor operator, qualified on S8G and S5W plants.  Davis is temporarily managing all social media for the American Nuclear Society.

Nuclear Energy Blog Carnival 225

ferris wheel 202x201The 225th Nuclear Energy Blog Carnival is being hosted this week right here at the ANS Nuclear Cafe.  Every week, the world’s top pro-nuclear authors and bloggers submit the most popular or most important articles from that week; the selections are then compiled at one of a set of rotating sites and featured as the “Carnival.”  Let’s jump right in to this week’s significant contributions.

Nuke Power Talk – Gail Marcus

A New Path Forward?

At Nuke Power Talk, Gail Marcus discusses the recent announcement from Loving County, Texas, that they are interested in serving as a host site for the nation’s high-level waste.  This expression of interest is in line with the recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Commission, as well as with the experiences of other countries, and could, in time, help pave a new path forward for HLW disposal in the US.

Gail Marcus also published a trio of posts this week at Nuke Power Talk that capture the main points of several articles recently printed in The Guardian in the UK that attempt to explain policymakers to scientists, scientists to policymakers, and the public to both scientists and policymakers.  Particularly in the nuclear area, where the views of the public and of policymakers are so important to the future of the industry, it is worthwhile to think about such things as the different pace, interests, and influences of each of these groups.

Science and Policymaking: Part I

Science and Policymaking: Part II

Science and Policymaking: Part III

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Forbes – Jim Conca

Germans Boared with Chernobyl Radiation

While the news media would like Germans to be afraid of wild radioactive boars roaming Saxony, these boars aren’t even mildly radioactive. You’d have to eat 3,000 lbs of this “hot” boar meat to equal a single medical CT scan. Which would make meals pretty boaring.

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Atomic Insights – Rod Adams

Is it really necessary to have a deep geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel?

It’s time to give the United States nuclear enterprise permission to quit trying to site a deep geologic repository for used nuclear fuel.

Quoting Chairman Macfarlane: In essence, the GEIS [for continued storage of spent fuel] concludes that unavoidable adverse environmental impacts are “small” for the short-term, long-term, and indefinite time frames for storage of spent nuclear fuel. The proverbial “elephant in the room” is this: if the environmental impacts of storing waste indefinitely on the surface are essentially small, then is it necessary to have a deep geologic disposal option?

Good question. The answer is no.

———-

Yes Vermont Yankee – Meredith Angwin

Another name for methane: the Microgrid for Vermont

Vermont’s major distribution utility is Green Mountain Power, and their CEO just announced a business partnership to build microgrids in Vermont. She hopes the microgrids will ultimately eliminate  the “archaic” grid built with “twigs and twine.”  Actually, the partnership goal is to sell small, gas-fired Stirling engines, called “Smart Solar” engines, and to sell natural gas. Green Mountain Power is a wholly owned subsidiary of Gaz Metro of Quebec. Vermonters should not assume that Gaz Metro has their best interests at heart.

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Neutron Bytes – Dan Yurman

Saudis update ambitious nuclear energy plans

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia plans to kick off a much talked about $80 billion program to shift 15% (17 GWe) of its electric generating capacity from fossil fuels to nuclear reactors.

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Next Big Future – Brian Wang

Thorium Isotope Breeder Proposed by Maglich, who has constructed four Migma Colliding Ion Beam fusion systems (with explanatory video and text)

Fusion isotope breeders can work with thorium molten salt reactors for nonproliferation

$10 trillion would be needed to rebuild the electric grid to support large additions of solar and wind generating sources

John Kutsch gives an informative energy rant; a second video debunks Dr. Helen Caldicott.

———-

Atomic Power Review – Will Davis

APR+ Design Certification Received

While the rest of the world watched for further hints of when a new boiling water reactor type might get through the type approval process in the USA, a different type of reactor received design certification in South Korea.  Details on this announcement and the APR+ in this post.

———-

ANS Nuclear Cafe - submitted by Paul Bowersox

ANS Winter Meeting – What’s In It For You?

Will Davis presents an appeal to those who have not yet committed to attending the ANS Winter Meeting in California.  There are many good reasons to attend if you can find the means – here are just a few worth considering.

———-

That’s it for this week’s entries.  THANK YOU to all the authors and submitters!

ANS Winter Meeting, November 9-13: What’s In It For You?

by Will Davis

I’d like to take this opportunity to ask you a question: Have you considered attending the American Nuclear Society’s Winter Meeting yet? Before you answer, I’d like to give you a few compelling reasons to do so from my own personal experience.

ANS_2-1205-2 attendees 200x133•  People  At ANS National meetings—at all ANS meetings, really, but especially at the two major national meetings each year—you’ll get a chance to meet and speak with people from every corner of the industry, and from a number of eras as well. People you have perhaps only e-mailed, and people who rarely use e-mail—they will be there. This is a prime opportunity to meet folks you’ve always wanted to meet. “But, what will that get me?” you say.

ANS_2-1206-student poster 200x132•  Networking  There is no end to the networking opportunities that happen around these meetings—before sessions, at lunch, and all evening afterward. Industry groups, regulatory groups, universities… they’re all present. Most folks find their schedules so packed with these meetups that by the time the actual meeting week arrives, there’s precious little other time undesignated. The number of things that can happen as a result of these networks is practically unlimited. The inspired atmosphere of the meetings makes great things happen—I’ve seen it.

•  Learning  To pick a particular topic, I can honestly say that in discussions both in person and on the internet about the Fukushima Daiichi accident, I have been consistently better equipped than even some other nuclear advocates as a direct result of having attended the ANS Winter Meeting in San Diego a couple years back. Personnel from TEPCO, other Japanese utilities, national and world regulatory bodies, universities, and laboratories around the world convened for a three-day Fukushima Daiichi sub-topical that provided an incredible level of detail and examination of the accidents. The same experience could not be had anywhere unless one went to Japan. I have considered this, and other ANS meeting topicals, to be invaluable. Again, only one possible example of what can happen for you if you attend these meetings.

Winter Meet 2013  ANS_2-1067 200x132•  Working  You can certainly make the case that your employer might well find you to be a more valuable employee after you’ve attended one of these meetings. The opportunities to grow and learn as a person and as an employee, and thus bring the benefits of those increased skills back to your employer, are never greater than at an ANS meeting. The technical papers presented, and opportunities to find out about new methods, or new programs, are a fertile field for growth. For those looking for employment in a nuclear-related field—what better environment in which to find out what’s hot, what’s available, and make that best first impression?

1117ZZ_0014CS 200x133I am sincerely hoping that folks who hadn’t thought about attending will reconsider after having read what I have to say. I think that the ANS national meeting experience is invaluable. I’ve tried over these years to relate it to everyone I can, so that the opportunities made possible by this ANS membership benefit are seized by everyone who can attend.

Yes, there will be a number of presentations honoring those who have earned high awards from ANS. There will be plenaries, and perhaps a formal dinner or two. Those have a rightful place at such meetings and I personally enjoy all of them. But I must say that I find the advantages of the additional aspects I’ve described above to be the best reasons to attend; I hope you’ll consider it.

2014 winter meeting front cover 200x258

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SavannahWillinControlRoomWill Davis is the Communications Director for the N/S Savannah Association, Inc. where he also serves as historian, newsletter editor and member of the board of directors. Davis has recently been engaged by the Global America Business Institute as a consultant.  He is also a consultant to, and writer for, the American Nuclear Society; an active ANS member, he is serving on the ANS Communications Committee 2013–2016. In addition, he is a contributing author for Fuel Cycle Week, and writes his own popular blog Atomic Power Review. Davis is a former US Navy reactor operator, qualified on S8G and S5W plants.

Nuclear Energy Blog Carnival 224

ferris wheel 202x201The 224th edition of the Carnival of Nuclear Bloggers and Authors has been posted at Things Worse Than Nuclear Power.  Click here to see this latest installment in a long running tradition among pro-nuclear authors and bloggers.

Each week, a new edition of the Carnival is hosted at one of the top English-language nuclear blogs. This rotating feature of nuclear “posts of the week” represents the dedication of those who are working toward a future of energy abundance, improved health, and broadened security through nuclear science and technology.

Past editions of the carnival have been hosted at Yes Vermont Yankee, Atomic Power Review, ANS Nuclear Cafe, NEI Nuclear Notes, Next Big Future, Atomic Insights, Hiroshima Syndrome, Things Worse Than Nuclear Power, EntrepreNuke, Thorium MSR and Deregulate the Atom.

This is a great collaborative effort that deserves your support.  If you have a pro-nuclear energy blog and would like to host an edition of the carnival, please contact Brain Wang at Next Big Future to get on the rotation.

Nuclear Energy Blog Carnival 223

ferris wheel 202x201The 223rd edition of the Carnival of Nuclear Bloggers has been posted at Next Big Future.  You can click here to access this latest post in a long running tradition among pro-nuclear authors and bloggers.

Each week, a new edition of the Carnival is hosted at one of the top English-language nuclear blogs. This rotating feature of nuclear “posts of the week” represents the dedication of those who are working toward a future of energy abundance, improved health, and broadened security through nuclear science and technology.

Past editions of the carnival have been hosted at Yes Vermont Yankee, Atomic Power Review, ANS Nuclear Cafe, NEI Nuclear Notes, Next Big Future, Atomic Insights, Hiroshima Syndrome, Things Worse Than Nuclear Power, EntrepreNuke, Thorium MSR and Deregulate the Atom.

This is a great collaborative effort that deserves your support.  If you have a pro-nuclear energy blog and would like to host an edition of the carnival, please contact Brain Wang at Next Big Future to get on the rotation.

Nuclear Energy Blog Carnival 222

ferris wheel 202x201The 222nd edition of the Carnival of Nuclear Bloggers and Authors has been posted at Atomic Insights.  You can click here to access the latest installment in a long running tradition among pro-nuclear authors and bloggers.

Each week, a new edition of the Carnival is hosted at one of the top English-language nuclear blogs. This rotating feature of nuclear “posts of the week” represents the dedication of those who are working toward a future of energy abundance, improved health, and broadened security through nuclear science and technology.

Past editions of the carnival have been hosted at Yes Vermont Yankee, Atomic Power Review, ANS Nuclear Cafe, NEI Nuclear Notes, Next Big Future, Atomic Insights, Hiroshima Syndrome, Things Worse Than Nuclear Power, EntrepreNuke, Thorium MSR and Deregulate the Atom.

This is a great collaborative effort that deserves your support.  If you have a pro-nuclear energy blog and would like to host an edition of the carnival, please contact Brain Wang at Next Big Future to get on the rotation.

The Final Entrant – Last Nuclear Utility in Japan Applies for Restart

Shika NPP Unit 2.  Courtesy Hokuriku Electric Power Co.

Shika NPP Unit 2. Courtesy Hokuriku Electric Power Co.

by Will Davis

Yesterday, the saga of nuclear energy in post-Fukushima Japan reached an important milestone as the final utility that owns nuclear power plants in that country applied to the regulator for restart, in an event that snuck under the radar of most news venues.

Hokuriku Electric Power Company yesterday submitted its application to have Shika Nuclear Power Plant Unit 2 examined by the Nuclear Regulation Authority under the revised guidelines for nuclear plant safety. Hokuriku owns only one nuclear power station, Shika, which has two units; Unit 1 is a BWR-5, while Unit 2 is an ABWR that went into commercial operation in March 2006. This application for Unit 2 means a number of things; it marks the end of the final holdout, if you will, by a nuclear utility; it shows that all utilities with nuclear plants will attempt to restart at least one unit; and it answers the question once and for all whether the Japanese utilities unanimously want to continue to include nuclear in their fuel mixes for the future.

Hokuriku has stated that work at the site (which mirrors heavy site work underway at most nuclear plants in post-Fukushima Japan) is not yet complete and that it does not have a specific restart date for this nuclear plant.

Shika Unit 2 had some press before this; this plant, along with Chubu Electric Power Company’s Hamaoka Unit 5, made some notoriety in 2006 when both were shut down for some time due to turbine generator problems. Hamaoka-5 shut down first in June 2006, actually on a turbine trip due to high vibration; this was quickly discovered to be a result of broken blades in the “B” or center (of three) of the low pressure turbines on its Hitachi TC6F-52 turbine generator. Because Shika Unit 2 had the same model turbine generator, it was ordered shut down in July 2006 for inspection; this revealed similar, if not as extensive, damage.

Hitachi paid for repairs to the Hamaoka and Shika turbine generators; the Hamaoka unit was back on-line in February 2007, eight months after the event. Shika Unit 2 however was saddled with a reduced power rating, and was also delayed in its restart while NISA (the former nuclear regulator) dealt with systemic problems at the site. Shika Unit 2 finally restarted in June 2008, rated at 1108 MWe instead of its original designed 1358 MWe. Hokuriku detailed plans to modify the turbine in 2010 and return the plant to its original full rating, but the only increase allowed was to 1206 MWe, which is where the official plant rating lies at the moment according to Nuclear Regulation Authority records. Hitachi has since modified its designs to eliminate the problems that originally caused these failures, which have not recurred in any other Hitachi turbine generators.

The restart applications, as they came

It is now appropriate to briefly detail the nuclear plant restart applications in a neat bunch as we find ourselves at a convenient historical point from which to look back.

The initial applications for restart actually came in a rush; on July 8, 2013, four utilities applied for restart examination for no fewer than 10 reactors at five sites. Quite interestingly, all of these were Mitsubishi pressurized water reactors); their ages varied, with commercial operation starting dates ranging from 1984 to 2009, in two, three, and four loop configurations. These were Hokkaido Electric Power’s Tomari NPP Units 1, 2 and 3; Kansai Electric Power’s Ohi NPP Units 3 and 4 and Takahama NPP Units 3 and 4; Shikoku Electric Power’s Ikata Unit 3; and Kyushu Electric Power’s Sendai Units 1 and 2.

Just four days later on July 12, 2013, Kyushu Electric Power also applied for its Genkai NPP Units 3 and 4. These are also Mitsubishi PWR plants.

As had long been expected, on September 27, 2013, Tokyo Electric Power applied to restart two units at its massive Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPP—and these, Units 6 and 7, were the first boiling water reactors of any kind to apply to restart. These units are Hitachi-GE-Toshiba ABWRs, and are the newest TEPCO nuclear units.

Chugoku Electric Power applied to restart Shimane NPP Unit 2, a Hitachi BWR-5, on December 25, 2013. Two days later on December 27th, Tohoku Electric Power applied to restart Onagawa NPP Unit 2—another BWR-5, but of Toshiba heritage.

The first application of 2014 was February 14, when Chubu Electric Power applied to restart Hamaoka Unit 4, a Toshiba-Hitachi BWR-5.

Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) applied to restart its Tokai Daini NPP, a GE BWR-5, on May 20, 2014. With a commercial operation date in November 1978, this is by far the oldest reactor applied for restart in Japan; the next closest date is Sendai Unit 1, commercially operational in 1984.

It was June before another application was made; on the 10th, Tohoku Electric Power applied to restart Higashidori 1, a BWR-5 of rather recent vintage, having entered commercial service in 2005.

And, of course, as we now know Shika Unit 2 applied yesterday (August 12, 2014,) marking only the third ABWR to apply for restart.

In total, the restart applications include 12 Mitsubishi PWRs, three ABWRs, and a total of five BWR-5 reactors of various heritage, making 20 reactors overall.

Hamaoka NPP: Courtesy Chubu Electric Power Co.

Hamaoka NPP: Courtesy Chubu Electric Power Co.

Kashiwazaki-Kariwa (TEPCO, two units applied), Tomari (Hokkaido, three units), Shika (Hokuriku, one unit applied), Shimane (Chugoku, one unit applied), Ikata (Shikoku, one unit applied), Takahama and Oi (both Kansai, four units total), and Genkai and Sendai (both Kyushu, four units applied) are on the West coast of Japan or on coasts facing west, making a total of 16 of the 20 units that are not subjected to future tsunami from the same fault that triggered the Great East Japan/Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami. The majority of these 16 units (12) are the Mitsubishi PWR units; three more of these 16 units are the ABWRs applied for restart.

The results of these restart applications are, of course, expected to be an exceedingly mixed bag. Anti-nuclear court rulings, mistrust among prefectural governments, environmental groups, and anti-nuclear activists are already having a major impact on the processes to restart the nuclear plants. It is certain that we will look back on this historical point as a mere footnote; the hard work of both preparing the plants for future events and regaining the public trust all lies mainly ahead, and it is likely to take many years to bottle those results as conveniently as we bottle the applications here.

For more information:

Japanese Utilities Lining Up to Restart Reactors

Preparing to Restart:  Tsunami Safety Measures at Japanese Nuclear Power Plants

Japan’s Nuclear Restarts:  Abe says “Will See To It;” Courts Differ; Plants Prepare

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WillDavisNewBioPicWill Davis is the Communications Director for the N/S Savannah Association, Inc. where he also serves as historian, newsletter editor and member of the board of directors. Davis has recently been engaged by the Global America Business Institute as a consultant.  He is also a consultant to, and writer for, the American Nuclear Society; an active ANS member, he is serving on the ANS Communications Committee 2013–2016. In addition, he is a contributing author for Fuel Cycle Week, and writes his own popular blog Atomic Power Review. Davis is a former US Navy reactor operator, qualified on S8G and S5W plants.

Nuclear Energy Blog Carnival 221

ferris wheel 202x201It’s time for the 221st edition of the Carnival of Nuclear Bloggers and Authors.  This event circulates among the top pro-nuclear blogs, and each week highlights those items submitted to the host as most important or most timely.  Of course, every week, there is a post made right here at ANS Nuclear Cafe to direct you to the Carnival – but on a rotating basis we host it here, and this week is one of those occasions.  Let’s go in!

Forbes – Jim Conca

Extinction by Traditional Chinese Medicine

An epidemic of poaching is sweeping over Africa, paid for by Chinese and other Asians, fueled by the growing energy production from coal.  Caught up in this frenzy of rituals are animals like the rhinoceros, which may not be long for the world.

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Nuke Power Talk – Gail Marcus

Energy Policy and Disruption: Managing Change

This week, Gail Marcus follows up on a previous post about the impacts of the evolution of energy technologies and takes the discussion a few steps further.  In addition to the always present tendency to protect existing jobs, she points to a study by the US Energy Information Administration (EIA) that shows that mining and related activities are a significant part of the economies of several states in the US.  She notes that this fact creates an additional dimension to the problem – it’s not just replacing one job with another one if the jobs are in different places – and comments on how states might proactively face such changes.

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NewsOK – Robert Hayes

Radioactive Materials in the Oilfield

Oilfield work involves long hours and back-breaking work.  It also involves radioactive material in many ways, including natural radioactivity and man-made radionuclides used in a number of specific ways.

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Yes Vermont Yankee – Meredith Angwin / guest post by George Coppenrath

New England Energy: What were they thinking?

George Coppenrath, a Vermont state senator who served on the Natural Resources and Energy Committee, wrote this guest post.  He wonders what Vermont energy planners were thinking; did they think that closing Vermont Yankee would push energy production to wind and solar?  Did they think natural gas would be inexpensive forever? It looks like they were wrong.

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NEI Nuclear Notes – submitted by Eric McErlain (various authors)

US Technology Exports and Africa:  A delegation from Niger, South Africa and Namibia visited NEI on August 7th to see how peaceful commercial nuclear technology could be exported to those countries.

In a Pit in a Nuclear Free Vermont:  A series of bad choices when it comes to energy policy has led Vermont down a blind alley.

Transatomic Power snags $2 million Investment:  The Founders Fund, a group that provided seed money for Facebook and other Silicon Valley start-ups, has made a $2 million investment in Transatomic Power.

What It Takes to Become an Operations Shift Manager:  Megan Wilson at PG&E talks about what it takes to move up the ladder at California’s only nuclear plant.

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Next Big Future – Brian Wang

India needs to expand nuclear; HTGR in works

India needs to both expand its power system to serve 300 million people, as well as move away from coal fired generation assets.  Nuclear power would, potentially, grow 15 times faster here than other assets.  Also, a piece on shared development of HTGR’s between Japan and Indonesia.

Cameco on track; Cameco’s production target not impacted by process changes.

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Atomic Insights – Rod Adams (guest post by Bill Sacks / Greg Myerson)

Why Does Conventional Wisdom Ignore Hormesis?

In light of repeated assertions that all ionizing radiation is harmful no matter how high or how low the dose, the existence of a beneficial health effect may be surprising.  But nearly a century of laboratory experimentation and epidemiological observation of both humans and animals supports the protective response region and contradicts the conventional wisdom.  Why then does the concept that all ionizing radiation is harmful hang on with such tenacity, and how did it gain a foothold against all evidence to the contrary?

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The Hiroshima Syndrome – Les Corrice

Did Fukushima Daiichi Unit 3 have a “melt through?”

TEPCO says the Unit 3 core may have completely melted and most of it might be embedded in the basemat under the reactor.  The company cautions that their analysis “entails some degree of uncertainty.”  Their degree of uncertainty might be substantial.

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Canadian Energy Issues – Steve Aplin

Fighting darkness and steel with carbide, and carbon with nuclear energy; Canada’s revolutionary past, present and future

What does calcium carbide have to do with nuclear energy?  Steve Aplin of Canadian Energy Issues remembers his spelunking days and their connection to the Second Industrial Revolution.

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That’s it for this week’s entries!  Thanks to all of our submitters, and authors.

Japan Nuclear Restarts: Abe Says “Will See To It,” Courts Differ, Plants Prepare

By Will Davis

HamaokaChubuElectric“I will see to it by some means or other. I will properly deal with it.” So go the reported words of Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe regarding the restart of nuclear power plants in Japan, as printed recently in the Japanese press. At the present time, while the Japanese government and courts seem to be at odds on restarting plants—with the public left in the middle—those at the nuclear plants themselves must count on eventual approval to restart and must ensure required measures are completed properly. Those preparing for restart continue to work toward that end while facing an improving, but not yet by any means certain, situation in the public and legal arenas.

Abe says yes, court says no

Those wishing for nuclear plant restarts in Japan, and especially power companies and large manufacturers (which consider their businesses in great peril), were bolstered by the continued support for nuclear restarts expressed by Abe, although it’s now becoming clear that a one-man fight isn’t what lies ahead. Abe’s recent statement, specifically about Sendai Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), comes on the heels of a public presentation to the Prime Minister of produce from the governor of Fukushima Prefecture—a sure sign that life indeed continues in the prefecture. That rosy picture of recovery stands opposed by courts, however.

Just last May, the Fukui Court issued an order to Kansai Electric barring the restart of reactors at the Oi NPP. The language of the order has more recently been translated into English, and the finding is troubling—the court basically saying that no person or establishment is capable of predicting the maximum severity and effect of prospective natural disasters; and that since the people of Japan generally derive their welfare and well-being from the land, it can be ruled illegal to operate nuclear plants that could in theory lead to the loss of the land and well-being of the people.

Residents in the immediate vicinity of Sendai NPP in Kagoshima Prefecture were this week issued iodine pills as part of a disaster preparedness plan, along with access to pharmacists who could answer questions, according to NHK World. One resident interviewed said that he indeed felt better because of this “ounce of prevention” approach. In some regions, public opinion appears to sway toward the return of nuclear energy, as utilities and prefectural governments make advance preparations and keep the public “in the loop.”

Preparing by building and training

KashiwazakiKariwaAs scenes of quite public debate continue, the utilities meanwhile have long recognized the need to restart their nuclear plants, if at all possible, to begin to recoup some of the massive losses they’re incurring—as a result of having to buy large amounts of fossil fuel and having to build temporary fossil-fired power plants to make up for the loss of generation from nuclear plants. And lest there be any doubt, overall power generation is still far, far short of what it had been with all nuclear plants available.

Some plants have experienced setbacks. This week, Shikoku Electric Power Company announed that its Ikata NPP would delay restarting by up to a year because its on-site emergency control center didn’t meet required revised seismic standards.

Others continue apace. We’ve reported here on the massive amount of time and money that Tokyo Electric Power Company (owner of Fukushima Daiichi) has put into its Kashiwazaki–Kariwa nuclear plant on the opposite coast of Japan; these safety measures continue with further massive construction. A recently published video displays the continued wide effort underway to meet all the required precautions and standards, and is worth viewing in its entirety for anyone interested in the preparations at nuclear plants in Japan:

Click here to watch the TEPCO Kashiwazaki-Kariwa video

Japan’s Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) released a report stating that the triggering event for the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident was in fact the tsunami, and not the earthquake itself, lending support to safety actions taken at Kashiwazaki–Kariwa and other nuclear plant sites around Japan (including Chubu Electric’s Hamaoka NPP and Kyushu Electric Power’s Genkai and Sendai NPP’s) in the sense that the majority of expenditure lies in prevention of damaging effects from tsunami. A previous Japanese government panel had implicated the quake as the cause, but the NRA’s investigation has resulted in little or no evidence that the quake itself caused any damage to the plants that would have led to core melt. For example, the summary of the NRA report states that any small leaks caused by the quake would not have caused a threat to core integrity within 10 hours, and that there were no detectable signs of any serious breach of primary plant integrity during the time between the quake and the arrival of the tsunami.

It seems assured now—given the work required, the recent court position, and the overall sensitivity of the issue—that none of the nuclear plants in Japan will restart before autumn. As that original hope slips, the public and industry continue to forge a new understanding of the importance of safety in the Japanese nuclear power industry.

For more information:

Hamaoka NPP – 19 minute video of preparations, training entitled “Amassing Our Full Strength in Pursuit of Greater Safety

Nuclear Regulation Authority (Japan) – Overview of Regulatory Requirements

New Regulatory Requirements for Light Water Nuclear Plants (Earthquakes and Tsunami.)  Nuclear Regulation Agency

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SavannahWillinControlRoomWill Davis is the Communications Director for the N/S Savannah Association, Inc. where he also serves as historian and as a member of the board of directors. Davis has recently been engaged by the Global America Business Institute as a consultant.  He is also a consultant to, and writer for, the American Nuclear Society; an active ANS member, he is serving on the ANS Communications Committee 2013–2016. In addition, he is a contributing author for Fuel Cycle Week, and writes his own popular blog Atomic Power Review. Davis is a former US Navy reactor operator, qualified on S8G and S5W plants.

Nuclear Energy Blog Carnival 219

ferris wheel 202x201The 219th edition of the Carnival of Nuclear Bloggers and Authors has been posted at The Hiroshima Syndrome.  You can click here to access this latest installment of a long running tradition among pro-nuclear authors and bloggers.

Each week, a new edition of the Carnival is hosted at one of the top English-language nuclear blogs. This rotating feature of nuclear “posts of the week” represents the dedication of those who are working toward a future of energy abundance, improved health, and broadened security through nuclear science and technology.

Past editions of the carnival have been hosted at Yes Vermont Yankee, Atomic Power Review, ANS Nuclear Cafe, NEI Nuclear Notes, Next Big Future, Atomic Insights, Hiroshima Syndrome, Things Worse Than Nuclear Power, EntrepreNuke, Thorium MSR and Deregulate the Atom.

This is a great collaborative effort that deserves your support.  If you have a pro-nuclear energy blog and would like to host an edition of the carnival, please contact Brain Wang at Next Big Future to get on the rotation.

Nuclear Energy Blog Carnival 218

ferris wheel 202x201The 218th Nuclear Energy Blog Carnival has been posted at Yes Vermont Yankee.  You can click here to access this latest installment in a long running tradition  among pro-nuclear authors and bloggers.

Each week, a new edition of the Carnival is hosted at one of the top English-language nuclear blogs. This rotating feature of nuclear “posts of the week” represents the dedication of those who are working toward a future of energy abundance, improved health, and broadened security through nuclear science and technology.

Past editions of the carnival have been hosted at Yes Vermont Yankee, Atomic Power Review, ANS Nuclear Cafe, NEI Nuclear Notes, Next Big Future, Atomic Insights, Hiroshima Syndrome, Things Worse Than Nuclear Power, EntrepreNuke, Thorium MSR and Deregulate the Atom.

This is a great collaborative effort that deserves your support.  If you have a pro-nuclear energy blog and would like to host an edition of the carnival, please contact Brain Wang at Next Big Future to get on the rotation.